Research Papers

IoTeX is a long term, “technology first” project that is pushing the frontier of blockchain 3.0 with innovations in blockchain privacy, scalability, and speed. In the past 2 years, we have distributed several white papers and yellow papers to further elaborate on our innovations.

White Paper

IoTeX is the auto-scalable and privacy-centric blockchain infrastructure for the Internet of Things (IoT), which brings autonomous device coordination to the masses by “connecting the physical world, block by block”. This paper introduces its several in-house innovations to push the frontier of blockchain 3.0, including a blockchains-in-blockchain architecture for heterogeneous computing, lightning fast Roll-DPoS consensus mechanism, and lightweight privacy-preserving techniques.

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Yellow Paper – Roll-DPoS

Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPoS) is an efficient, decentralized, and flexible consensus framework available in the blockchain industry. However, applying DPoS to the decentralized IoT applications is quite challenging due to the nature of IoT systems such as large-scale deployments and huge amount of data. To address the unique challenge for IoT based blockchain applications, we present Roll-DPoS, a randomized delegated proof of stake algorithm. Roll-DPoS inherits all the advantages of the original DPoS consensus framework and further enhances its capability in terms of decentralization as well as extensibility to complex blockchain architectures. A number of modern cryptographic techniques have been utilized to optimize the consensus process with respect to the computational and communication overhead.

Scalable Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance with Short-lived Signature Schemes

“Scalable Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance with Short-lived Signature Schemes” has been accepted by CASCON 2018. CASCON is a premier industrial and academic conference for advanced studies in computer science and software engineering sponsored by the IBM Canada Laboratory. This paper presents IoTeX’s extensive experiments with three elliptic curves and two signature schemes which demonstrate the efficacy of using short-lived signature schemes for improving the scalability of PBFT significantly.

DKSAP-IoT

“Faster Dual-key Stealth Address for Blockchain-based Internet of Things Systems (icbc2018–9009)” has been accepted and published by one of the world’s most reputable academic blockchain conferences, the 2018 International Conference on Blockchain (ICBC 2018). This paper describes IoTeX’s enhancements to the already state-of-the-art dual-key stealth address protocol (DKSAP), which is used by projects such as Monero.

IoTeX’s new protocol (named “DKSAP-IoT”) is an IoT-friendly adaptation of DKSAP, which reduces computational overhead by 50% compared to DKSAP, thereby paving the way for its application to blockchain-based IoT systems.

Decentralized Framework for Data Authenticity Protection in IoT Systems

It is predicted that more than 20 billion IoT devices will be deployed worldwide by 2020. These devices form the critical infrastructure to support a variety of important applications, such as smart city, smart grid, and industrial IoT. To guarantee that these applications work properly, it is imperative to authenticate these devices, as well as the data generated by them. Although digital signatures can be applied for these purposes, the scale of the overall system and the limited computation capability of IoT devices pose two big challenges. In order to overcome these obstacles, this paper proposes a novel decentralized ledger-based authentication framework for IoT devices. The framework utilizes a two-layer decentralized ledger architecture together with a lightweight data authentication mechanism to facilitate IoT devices and data management. This work has been published in IEEE Network.

Supporting Blockchain-Based Cryptocurrency Mobile Payment With Smart Devices

The ownership of smart devices is higher than ever before and mobile payments have become one of the major payment methods in many different disciplines. As a result, there is a natural demand to support cryptocurrency payments on smart devices. Considering the poor infrastructure and low penetration of financial services in developing countries, this combination has high potential impact. This paper proposed two different schemes for cryptocurrency mobile payments, one involving a centralized bank and the other not requiring any centralized party. This paper also provides a solution to meet KYC (know your customer) and AML (anti-money laundering) compliance requirements in the context of cryptocurrency mobile payment processing. This work has been published in IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine.

Decentralized IoT Data Authorization with Pebble Tracker

Decentralized identifiers (DIDs) and verifiable cre- dentials (VCs) are emerging concepts for creating verifiable self- sovereign digital identities for people, organizations and Internet of things (IoT). In this demo, we share the implementation details and experiences for realizing a decentralized IoT data authorization framework with a Pebble tracker, an in-house built trusted GPS tracking device with 4G connectivity and sensor technologies. Our implementation demonstrates great flexibility and tremendous advantages towards building decentralized and global-scale IoT applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first real-world demo for enabling decentralized IoT data authorization with DIDs and VCs.